Computers and Digital Signal Processing already play a big role in recent Amateur Radio transceivers. Many HAMs have a good understanding of these features and regularly use them for all manner of filtering, noise reduction, and signal processing tasks while on the air. We’ve also seen more and more radios with Spectrum Scopes which make it easier to visualize what is on a given band in real-time. Thanks to increasing volumes in color displays, Digital Signal Processor (DSP) applications, and low-cost processors, these capabilities are now common – even on entry-level HF transceivers.
Software Defined Radios (SDRs) are the next logical step in this evolution. SDRs are not new, they have been around for some time now. SDR technology has continued to improve as the cost and performance of Analog to Digital Converters, Programmable Logic Devices, and other processors that make up the hardware side of SDRs have improved. We are now to the point where it is possible to build an SDR for Amateur Radio applications that can directly sample RF at frequencies as high as 150 MHz.
Direct Sampling SDR receiver designs have some important advantages over the more conventional single conversion and super-heterodyne receiver (i.e. multiple conversion) designs. These include:
- Higher dynamic range
- Low phase noise
- Ability to cover multiple bands simultaneously with multiple receivers
- Very high-quality spectrum displays
- Flexible, high-performance filters
- The ability to add new modulation schemes and other features via software updates
The first two items above (dynamic range and phase noise) are particularly important as they result in receiver performance that is significantly better than that which can be achieved with the best direct and superhet designs. Take for example a busy contest environment when a band is very crowded (ex. 40m at night in a worldwide DX phone contest). There are many strong signals crowded closely together on the band. Even the best conventional design receivers will have trouble hearing moderate and weak signals in this environment. The problem is that the strong signals tend to overload the analog circuitry in the conversion stages of conventional radios which produces a great deal of Intermodulation Distortion Design products. Phase noise also compounds this problem.
A direct sampling SDR converts the incoming RF signals with high dynamic range Analog to Digital conversion and then performs all of the filtering and demodulation of the incoming signals in software. This approach limits the potential for Intermodulation Distortion with an end result that all of the signals on the band (including the weaker ones) are much clearer. This approach also allows very high-order filtering to be applied in the RF domain which results in greatly improved selectivity and rejection of closely spaced adjacent signals with minimal distortion.
By now some may be thinking that this all sounds great but I don’t want to have to use my computer to make QSOs. There is good news on this front as well. We are beginning to see the major transceiver manufacturers introduce direct sampling SDR technology in radios with conventional “buttons and knobs” interfaces.
New designs like the Icom IC-7300 can provide a way to gain the performance and feature advantages of an SDR in a radio which has a more conventional interface. The entry of the major manufacturers into the direct sampling space and the resulting competition should help to lower prices for all types of SDRs.
Want to give SDR technology a try without spending a lot of $? There are several very good SDR Dongles available along with SDR software at a minimal cost. Dongles are typically receive-only but some can also transmit at very lower power. The use of this technology in digital TV receivers and set-top boxes has made the cost of SDR Dongles very low and there is some very good SDR software available for free on the web. Dongles are generally broad coverage receivers and they can also be used to listen to signal outside the Amateur Bands.
It is interesting to follow the rapid evolution of SDR technology. We recently integrated a FlexRadio-6700 SDR into our station to enable us to operate remotely via the internet. You can read more about this project on our blog.
– Fred, AB1OC
can you tell me which is the best hand held dual band transceiver to begin with
Thanks for reading our Blog.
The best HT for you depends a lot on how you will use your HT. Many HAMs buy expensive HTs as their first radio and sometimes find later that they get more use from a mobile dual band rig in their vehicle or at home. I would recommend a cost effective basic dual band HT unless you plan to do something with an HT that requires more. For example, if you want to do EMCOM work and your local EMCOM group uses APRS, then one of the Kenwood HTs with built-in GPS and APRS capabilities might be a good bet. If you want to use the D-Star or DMR Digital Formats from a variety of locations and you can attach your HT to a good antenna system when you are driving or at your Home QTH, then radios which have these capabilities can be good choices.
There are some very nice HTs if you have the need. I like Icom’s ID-51A series because they are easy to use and have great displays.
When I was a new HAM, I purchased a used basic dual-band HT from a friend and used it to make some of my very first QSOs. I saved my $ and later purchased a really nice D-Star mobile dual band rig which I still use after 5 years to make most of the QSOs that I make through repeaters on 2 m and 70 cm.
I hope that this helps you. Best and 73,
– Fred (AB1OC)
Thank you so much for your suggestion, i have a license for more than a year now. But i use echolink, somehow i feel the HT would be the actual contact and feel of radio. I am yet to learn so much about radio, maybe i can your blog for my knowledge. My budget is limited so i have to think before i purchase
Thanks for the great article. Is there any other equipment needed for the SDR dongle to do ham bands, transmit and receive?
The answer depends upon the specific dongle you are using. Some of the SDR dongles that I am aware of work only in the VHF area of the spectrum while others may cover HF and VHF frequencies. To receive HF HAM band signals with a VHF dongle dongle, you may also need a up-converter to shift the HF frequencies to VHF. Also note than many of the SDR dongles which are available at low cost are receive only.
– Fred (AB1OC)